The Iodine Project

Treating symptoms, not masking them.

Are you Deficient? Check out the list of symptoms here.

 

You may think that because you don't have a goiter that you couldn't have an iodine deficiency... Well, you couldn't be more wrong, considering 90-95% of Americans are deficient. Each person is affected differently by iodine deficiency, the following may be putting you at higher risk for iodine deficiency.

  • Diet is a big one, some people have diets that contain more or less iodine, more or less bromine and/or more or less fluoride. You may be exposed to fluoride and not even know, not all bottled waters are free of it. In fact, most bottled waters not only contain fluoride due to fluoridation of the water in the city it is bottled in but some even add it! Like water for infants, they actually ADD fluoride. I saw a gallon of Nursery brand water at Walmart that was fluoridated. Rather than list the ones with fluoride I will list the ones that don't. Niagra and Sierra Springs are the only bottled waters that I have found that aren't fluoridated. To avoid fluoride find ones that use reverse osmosis or ionic filtration as these are currently the only ways to remove fluoride in drinking water. Aluminum also leaks fluoride while cooking or storage (i.e. soda can, aluminum foil), reconstituted juices may also contain fluoride depending on where it is bottled, and soda contains not only fluoride but most also contain bromide. There is also the bromide in bread and all sorts of other things we come into contact with on a daily basis, for more info. check out the bromide page. Goitrogens are another thing you have to look out for. One of the biggest goitrogens in our food supply (and it’s everywhere in our food supply) is soy. Soybean oil is in salad dressing and mayonnaise. It’s in commercial baby formula. It’s in almost all packaged cakes, candies chips, and crackers. And pretty much every meal you eat at a restaurant cooks their food in soybean oil.

     

    Not only that, but most of the cows, poultry and pigs in this country are fed a diet of industrial corn and soybeans. So even if you think you’re not eating lots of soy, you probably are. Another contributing factor is not only what you eat but how you eat, (i.e. raw veggies vs. cooked). Cooked vegetables lose vitamins, minerals, colors and flavors. For more information on the best ways to retain vitamins and minerals when cooking veggies click here.
  • Dental fillings play another important role.. mercury is the most common forms of dental fillings, these leak mercury therefore releasing a steady stream of poison into your body. Mercury binds to the iodine receptors in your body and block the uptake of iodine. When the iodine has no place to settle in the body it is then excreted through your urine. The more fillings you have, the more mercury you will find in your body contributing to your illnesses and low iodine content. Some people require a loading dose of iodine (50mg) for 3 months to push enough heavy metals out in order to increase bodily absorption of iodine.
  • Stress is another factor, some people stress easier than others and are more inclined to develop adrenal fatigue associated with iodine deficiency.Emergency situations are notorious for bringing on thyroid problems as well as fibromyalgia and CFS. The reason for this is that when you are deficient in iodine your body is struggling to make do without it's essential food, iodine. After a while you thyroid gives up suffering from fatigue and eventually atrophy (Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.) When this happens your adrenal glands try to pick up the slack. Without a break they too become fatigued and thats when people suffer adrenal failure.
  • Heredity does play a role since you inherit your mothers iodine deficiency as a babe in her womb. You then inherit your family's eating habits.
  • Gender is also a key, more women are predisposed to iodine deficiency than men. That is mainly because women require more, we need 5mg for our thyroid, 5mg for our breasts (larger breasts require more) and at least 2.5mg for the rest of our body (the amount necessary for your uterus has yet to be determined though it also needs a high content). Women need even more when pregnant or breastfeeding.  Men need the same 5mg for thyroid and 2.5mg for whole body but possibly less for prostate that is needed for breasts.
So before you assume you don't have it, take a look at the symptoms below and see if any of them fit.

 

 

 
 

FLUORIDE POISONING

THYROID DYSFUNCTION
(Iodine Deficiency Disorders)

  • Abnormal Sweating (18)
  • Abnormal Sweating (154, 155, 156)
  • Acne (2,3)
  • Acne (52)
  • ADHD/Learning Disorders (4,7)
  • ADHD/Learning Disorders (54)
  • Allergies (2)
  • Allergies (52)
  • Alopecia (Hair-loss)(18)
  • Alopecia (151)
  • Alzheimer’s Disease (5,6,46)
  • Alzheimer’s Disease (98)
  • Anaphylactic Shock (2)
  • Anaphylactic Shock (124)
  • Anemia (15)
  • Anemia (67)
  • Apnea (Cessation of breath)
  • Apnea (52)
  • Aorta Calcification (2)
  • Aorta Calcification (100)
  • Asthenia (Weakness) (18)
  • Asthenia (97)
  • Asthma (2)
  • Asthma (129)
  • Atherosclerosis (3)
  • Atherosclerosis (59)
  • Arthralgia (2)
  • Arthralgia (58)
  • Arthritis (8, 13)
  • Arthritis (52, 58)
  • Ataxia (2)
  • Ataxia (66)
  • Autism (169)
  • Autism (170, 171)
  • Back Pain (2)
  • Back Pain (153)
  • Behavioural Problems (3)
  • Behavioural Problems (54)
  • Birth Defects (5)
  • Birth Defects (53)
  • Blind Spots (3)
  • Blind Spots (52)
  • Body temperature disturbances (13)
  • Body temperature disturbances (52)
  • Breast Cancer (5)
  • Breast Cancer (147)
  • Cachexia (wasting away)(2)
  • Cachexia (133)
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (5)
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (52)
  • Cataracts (2)
  • Cataracts (69)
  • Change in blood pressure(=/-) (2)
  • Change in blood pressure (52)
  • Chest pain (26)
  • Chest pain (52)
  • Cholelithiasis (Gallstones)(2)
  • Cholelithiasis (134)
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (2)
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (52)
  • Collagen breakdown (3)
  • Collagen Breakdown (99)
  • Cold Shivers (13)
  • Cold Shivers (52)
  • Coma (1,3)
  • Coma (65)
  • Concentration Inability (13,8)
  • Concentration Inability (52)
  • Constipation (52)
  • Constipation (52)
  • Convulsions (2)
  • Convulsions (81)
  • Crying easily for no apparent reason (18)
  • Crying easily for no apparent reason (52)
  • Death (3)
  • Death (123)
  • Decrease in Testosterone (32)
  • Decrease in Testosterone (96)
  • Dementia (2)
  • Dementia (54)
  • Demyelinizing Diseases (2, 35)
  • Demyelinizing Diseases (137)
  • Dental Abnormalities (2)
  • Dental Abnormalities (86)
  • Dental Arch smaller (27)
  • Dental Arch smaller (95)
  • Dentral Crowding (23)
  • Dental Crowding (93)
  • Dental enamel more porous (29)
  • Dental enamel more porous (96)
  • Dentral Fluorosis (Mottling of teeth)
  • Mottling of teeth (172)
  • Delayed Eruption of Teeth (28)
  • Delayed Eruption of Teeth (86)
  • Depression (8)
  • Depression (52, 97, 152)
  • Diabetes Insipidus (36a,b)
  • Diabetes Insipidus (120)
  • Diabetes Mellitus (2)
  • Diabetes Mellitus (64)
  • Diarrhea (8)
  • Diarrhea (53)
  • Dizziness (8,13)
  • Dizziness (52)
  • Down Syndrome (10)
  • Down Syndrome (54)
  • Dry Mouth (2)
  • Dry Mouth (52)
  • Dyspepsia (8)
  • Dyspepsia (157)
  • Dystrophy (3)
  • Dystrophy (79)
  • Early/Delayed Onset of Puberty(14)
  • Early/Delayed Onset of Puberty (53)
  • Eczema (2)
  • Eczema (115, 116)
  • Edema(3)
  • Edema (97)
  • Epilepsy (2)
  • Epilepsy (121)
  • Eosinophilia (15)
  • Eosinophilia (55)
  • Excessive Sleepiness (8)
  • Excessive Sleepiness (52)
  • Eye, ear and nose disorders (8)
  • Eye, ear and nose disorders (52)
  • Fatigue (2,13)
  • Fatigue (52)
  • Fearfulness (1,18)
  • Fearfulness (71)
  • Fever (13)
  • Fever (96)
  • Fibromyalgia (2)
  • Fibromyalgia (143)
  • Fibrosarcoma (3)
  • Fibrosarcoma (144)
  • Fibrosis (3)
  • Fibrosis (76a,b)
  • Fingernails:Lines/Grooves (1)
  • Fingernails:Lines/Grooves (97)
  • Fingernails:Brittle (1,3)
  • Fingernails:Brittle (97)
  • Forgetfulness (3)
  • Forgetfulness (97)
  • Gastro-disturbances (8)
  • Gastro-disturbances (52)
  • Gastric Ulcers (2)
  • Gastric Ulcers (92)
  • Giant Cell Formation
  • Giant Cell Formation (135)
  • Gingivitis (19, 173)
  • Gingivitis (72)
  • Glaucoma (174)
  • Glaucoma (175)
  • Goitre (2)
  • Goitre (52)
  • Growth Disturbances (1)
  • Growth Disturbances (53)
  • Headache (2)
  • Headache (118)
  • Hearing Loss (5)
  • Hearing Loss (165)
  • Heart Disorders
  • Heart Disorders (52)
  • Heart Failure (3)
  • Heart Failure (109, 110)
  • Heart Palpitations (13)
  • Heart Palpitations (52)
  • Hepatitis (2)
  • Hepatitis (136)
  • Hemorrhage (1,2)
  • Hemorrhage (85)
  • Hives (3)
  • Hives (108)
  • Hoarseness (18)
  • Hoarseness (97)
  • Hyperparathyroidism (2)
  • Hyperparathyroidism (82)
  • Hypertension (8)
  • Hypertension (52, 60)
  • Hypoplasia (40)
  • Hypoplasia (150)
  • Immunosuppression (3)
  • Immunosuppression (52)
  • Impotence (3)
  • Impotence (97)
  • Incoherence (8)
  • Incoherence (54)
  • Infertility (2,3)
  • Infertility (87)
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (142)
  • Inner Ear Disorders (2,5)
  • Inner Ear Disorders (139)
  • Irritability (18)
  • Irritability (160)
  • Joint Pains (8)
  • Joint Pains (52)
  • Kidney Failure (2)
  • Kidney Failure (125)
  • Lack of Energy (8)
  • Lack of Energy (52)
  • Lack of Co-ordination (2)
  • Lack of Co-ordination (52)
  • Loss of Appetite (2)
  • Loss of Appetite (97)
  • Loss of Consciousness (2)
  • Loss of Consciousness (138)
  • Loss of IQ (25)
  • Loss of IQ (83)
  • Loss of Spermatogenesis (33)
  • Loss of Spermatogenesis (102)
  • Low Birth Weight (5)
  • Low Birth Weight (158)
  • Lung Cancer (3)
  • Lung cancer (145)
  • Lupus (3)
  • Lupus (101)
  • Magnesium Deficiency (2)
  • Magnesium Deficiency (94)
  • Memory Loss (13)
  • Memory Loss (52)
  • Mental Confusion (20)
  • Mental Confusion (52,54)
  • Migraine (8)
  • Migraine (52)
  • Monisiliasis (Candidasis) (162)
  • Monisiliasis (Candidasis) (161)
  • More fluorosis/high altitudes (30,31)
  • More hypothyroidism/high altitudes (96)
  • Mouth Sores (2)
  • Mouth Sores (87)
  • Myalgia (Muscle Pain) (2)
  • Myalgia (58)
  • Myotrophy (Muscle wasting) (2)
  • Myotrophy (58)
  • Multiple Sclerosis (4)
  • Multiple Sclerosis (126)
  • Muscle Cramps (3)
  • Muscle Cramps (58)
  • Muscle Stiffness (3)
  • Muscle Stiffness (58)
  • Muscle Weakness (2)
  • Muscle Weakness (57)
  • Muscoskeletal Disease (3)
  • Muscoskeletal Disease (80,57)
  • Nausea (8,13)
  • Nausea (52)
  • Osteoarthritis (2)
  • Osteoarthritis (62)
  • Osteoporosis (2)
  • Osteoporosis (62)
  • Osteosarcoma (22b)
  • Osteosarcoma (104)
  • Optic Neuritis (2)
  • Optic Neuritis (68)
  • Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (22)
  • Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (103)
  • Otosclerosis
  • Otosclerosis
  • Parkinson’s Disease (5)
  • Parkinson’s Disease (110,111)
  • Pins & Needles (18)
  • Pins & Needles (52)
  • Polydipsia (2)
  • Polydipsia (64)
  • Polyneuropathy (2)
  • Polyneuropathy (57)
  • Polyurea (2)
  • Polyurea (64)
  • Pyelocystitis (2)
  • Pyelocystitis (63)
  • Premature Delivery (16)
  • Premature Delivery (52)
  • Pruritis (Itchy Skin) (3)
  • Pruritis (113)
  • Pulminary Edema (2)
  • Pulminary Edema (114)
  • Recurring Colds (18)
  • Recurring Colds (52)
  • Respiratory Complications (13,8)
  • Respiratory Complications (52)
  • Restlessness (13)
  • Restlessness (52)
  • Retinitis (2)
  • Retinitis (128)
  • Rhinitis (38)
  • Rhinitis (6)
  • Schizophrenia (18)
  • Schizophrenia (163, 164)
  • Sceroderma (3)
  • Scleroderma (74)
  • Skin Pigmentation (2)
  • Skin Pigmentation (97)
  • Secondary teeth erupt later (16)
  • Secondary teeth erupt later (86)
  • Sensitive to light (1,17)
  • Sensitive to light (52)
  • Seizures 913)
  • Seizures (88)
  • Shortness of Breath (13)
  • Shortness of Breath (52)
  • SIDS (16)
  • SIDS (54)
  • Sinus Infections (2,8)
  • Sinus Infections (52)
  • Skeletal Changes (2)
  • Skeletal Changes (86)
  • Sleep Disorders (2)
  • Sleep Disorders (52)
  • Slipped Epiphysis
  • Slipped Epiphysis
  • Sluggishness (2)
  • Sluggishness (52)
  • Skin Irritations (13,8)
  • Skin Irritations (52)
  • Spondylitis, ankylosing (5)
  • Spondylitis, ankylosing (148)
  • Stillbirths (2)
  • Stillbirths (97)
  • Swallowing Difficulties (Dysphagia) (13)
  • Swallowing Difficulties (52)
  • Swelling in Face (Angioedema) (3)
  • Swelling in Face (97)
  • Telangiectasia (166)
  • Telangiectasia (167, 168)
  • Testicular Growth/Alteration (2, 42)
  • Testicular Growth/Alteration (102)
  • Thirst (13)
  • Thirst (89)
  • Thrombosis (39)
  • Thrombosis (122, 141a,b)
  • Thyroid Cancer (22)
  • Thyroid Cancer (87)
  • Tinnitus (8)
  • Tinnitus (52)
  • Tingling Sensations(18)
  • Tingling Sensations (52)
  • Visual disturbances (13,8)
  • Visual Disturbances (52)
  • Ulcerative Colitis (41)
  • Ulcerative Colitis (142)
  • Urticaria (2)
  • Urticaria (105, 106, 107)
  • Uterine Bleeding (2)
  • Uterine Bleeding (91)
  • Uterine Cancer (23)
  • Uterine Cancer (77)
  • Vaginal Bleeding (5)
  • Vaginal Bleeding (90)
  • Vas Deferens Alterations (5)
  • Vas Deferens Alterations (146)
  • Vertigo (8)
  • Vertigo (52)
  • Vitiligo (white spots/skin) (2)
  • Vitiligo (73)
  • Weak Pulse (13)
  • Weak Pulse (52)
  • Weight Disturbances (2)
  • Weight Disturbances (52)
  • Zinc Deficiency (2)
  • Zinc Deficiency (94)
 

REFERENCES:

1) Meiers P - "Zur Toxizität von Fluorverbindungen, mit besonderer
Berücksichtigung der Onkogenese", Verlag für Medizin Dr. Ewald Fischer, Heidelberg (1984)

2) Waldbott GL, Burgstahler AW, McKinney HL - "Fluoridation:The Great Dilemma" Coronado Press (1978)

3) Yiamouyiannis J - "Fluoride - The Aging Factor",  3rd. Edition, Health Action Press, 6439 Taggart Road, Delaware, Ohio (1993)

4) Mullenix PJ, Denbesten PK, Schunior A, Kernan WJ - "Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride In Rats" Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 17(2):169-177(1995)

5) Judd, G - "Good Teeth Birth To Death", Research Publications, Glendale Arizona (1997), EPA Research #2 (1994)

6) Varner JA, Jensen KF, Horvath W, Isaacson RL - "Chronic administration of aluminum- fluoride or sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity" Brain Research 784 284-298 (1998)

7) Zhao LB, Liang GH, Zhang DN, Wu XR -  "Effect of high fluoride water supply on children's intelligence" Fluoride 29 190-192 (1996)

8) Grimbergen GW -"A Double Blind Test for Determination of Intolerance to Fluoridated Water (Preliminary Report)" Fluoride 7:146-152 (1974)

9) Wilson RH,  DeEds F - "The Synergistic Action Of Thyroid  On Fluorine Toxicity" Endocrinology 26:851 (1940)

10)Rapaport, I -"Nouvelles recherches sur le mongolisme. A propos du role pathogénique du fluor" Bull Acad Nat Med (Paris)143:367-370 (1959)

11)Day, TK, Powell-Jackson,PR -"Fluoride, Water Hardness, and Endemic Goitre" Lancet 1:1135-1138 (1972)

12)Zhao, W;Zhu, H; Yu, Z;Aoki, K; Misumi, J; Zhang, X -"Long-term Effects of Various Iodine and Fluorine Doses on the Thyroid and Fluorosis in Mice" Endocr Regul 32(2):63-70 (1998)

13)Roholm, K.; Fluorine Intoxication - "A Clinical Hygiene Study, With A Review Of the Literature And Some Experimental Investigations" H.K. Lewis & Co., London (1937)

14)Luke, J.A.- "Effect of fluoride on the physiology of the pineal gland" Caries Research 28 204 (1994)

15)Hillman, D; Bolenbaugh, D.L;Convey E.M. -"Hypothyroidism and anemia related to fluoride in dairy cattle" J Dairy Sci 62(3):416-23 (1979)

16)Schatz, A -"Low-level fluoridation and low-level radiation --Two case histories of mis-conduct in science" by Albert Schatz, Ph.D,1996, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
http://www.cadvision.com/fluoride/schatz.htm

17)Visnerevski, V - Gig Tr Prof Zabol 13:60 (1969)

18)Spira, L:"The Drama of Fluorine - Arch Enemy of Mankind" Milwaukee Press (1953) (Compilation of published articles)

19)Dean, T. - JAMA 107:1269 (1936)

20)Smith, MC- J Dent Res 14:139 (1934)

21)Staub M, Csapo Z, Spasokukotskaja T, Sasvari-Szekely M-"Deoxycytidine kinase can be also potentiated by the G-protein activator NaF in cells" Adv Exp Med Biol 431:425-8 (1998)

22) NTP Technical Report Series No. 393; NIH Publication No. 91-2848; "Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of sodium fluoride (CAS No. 7681-49-4) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice", December 1990) National Toxicology Program P.O. Box 12233 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

23)Tohyama E - "Relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water mortality rate from uterine cancer in Okinawa prefecture, Japan" J Epidemiol (CL8); 6 (4): 184-91 (1996)
http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/uterine.htm

24) Masztalerz A, Masztalerzowa Z, Szymanska M, Tomelka J- "Fluorine and the dentition" Fortschr Kieferorthop 51(4):234-7(1990)
http://www.bruha.com/fluoride/html/crowding.htm

25)Li, X.S., Zhi, J.L., and Gao, R.O. "- Effect of fluoride exposure on intelligence in children" Fluoride 28 (1995)

26)Petraborg,H.T.-"Hydrofluorosis in the Fluoridated Milwaukee Area" Fluoride 10(4)(1977)

27)Jonas I, et al - "Changes in tooth morphology as affected by fluoridated drinking water" Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 94(5):399-4089 (1984)

28)Kunzel VW - "Cross-sectional comparison of the median eruption time for permanent teeth in children from fluoride poor and optimally fluoridated areas" Stomatol DDR 5:310-21 (1976)

29)Fejerskov O, Manji F, Baelum V-"The nature and mechanisms of dental fluorosis in man "J Dent Res 69 Spec No:692-700; discussion 721 (1990)

30)Yoder KM, Mabelya L, Robison VA, Dunipace AJ, Brizendine EJ, Stookey GK - "Severe dental fluorosis in a Tanzanian population consuming water with negligible fluoride concentration" Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 26(6):382-93 (1998)

31)Rwenyonyi C, Bjorvatn K, Birkeland J, Haugejorden O- "Altitude as a Risk Indicator of Dental Fluorosis in Children Residing in Areas with 0.5 and 2.5 mg Fluoride per Litre in Drinking Water." Caries Res 33(4):267-274 (1999)

32)Suheela, AK; Jethanandani, P -"Circulating Testosterone Levels is skeletal Fluorosis patients" J Tox Clin Tox 34(2):187-189 (1996)

33)Tomas James Rees - The Toxicology of Male Reproduction, Literature Review in Applied Toxicology, Portsmouth University, February 1993

34) Balabolkin MI, Mikhailets ND, Lobovskaia RN, Chernousova NV - "The interrelationship of the thyroid and immune statuses of workers with long-term fluorine exposure" Ter Arkh 67(1):41-2 (1995)

35)Franke, J;Rath, F;Runge, H;Fengler, F;Auermann, E;Lenart G. - "Industrial Fluorosis" Fluoride 8:61-85 (1975)

36a)Bosch T -"Nephrotoxicity and fluoride from the viewpoint of the nephrologist" Anaesthesist 45 Suppl 1:S41-5 (1996)

36b)Rush GF, Willis LR - "Renal tubular effects of sodium fluoride"
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 223(2):275-9 (1982)

37)Medvedeva VN - "Blood serotonin levels and urinary excretion of tryptamine in toxic hepatitis caused by fluoride compounds" Vrach Delo (6):92-5 (1985)

38)Kowalska S, Sulkowski W - "Perforation of the nasal septum of occupational origin" Med Pr 34(2):171-5 (1983)

39)Matsumoto S - "Hydrofluoric acid burn: particulars on multiple pulmonary thrombi" Sangyo Ika Daigaku Zasshi 11(4):411-24 (1989)

40)Nelson DG, Coote GE, Vickridge IC, Suckling G - "Proton microprobe determination of fluorine profiles in the enamel and dentine of erupting incisors from sheep given low and high daily doses of fluoride" Arch Oral Biol 34(6):419-29 (1989)

41)Rachmilewitz D, Karmeli F, Selinger Z-"Increased colonic adenylate cyclase activity in active ulcerative colitis" Gastroenterology 85(1):12-6
(1983)

42)Tokar' VI, Savchenko ON - "Effect of inorganic fluorine compounds on the functional state of the pituitary-testis system" Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 23(4):104-7 (1977)

43)Strunecka A, Patocka J - "Aluminum and fluoride: a new, deadly duo in Alzheimer's Disease" Cesk Fysiol 48(1):9-15 (1999)

THYROID MEDICATION

44)Galetti, PM;Joyet, G - "Effect of Fluorine On Thyroidal Iodine Metabolism in Hyperthyroidism" J Clin Endocrinol 18:1102-1110 (1958)

45)May, W - "Antagonismus zwischen Jod und Fluor im Organismus" Klin Wochenschr 14:790-792 (1937)

46)May, W - "Behandlung der Hypothyreosen einschließlich des schweren genuinen Morbus Basedow mit Fluor" Klin Wochenschr 16:562-564 (1937)

47)Gorlitzer von Mundy - "Einfluss von Fluor und Jod auf den Stoffwechsel, insbesondere auf die Schilddrüse" Münch Med Wochenschrift 105:234-247 (1963)

48)Gordonoff, T. - Fluor und die Schilddrüse, Toxikology des Fluors
Basel/Stuttgart, pp.111-123 (1964)

49)"Documentation Of Rising Intake of Fluorides" - 26 Official Documents compiled by Darlene Sherrell, Dental Fluorosis Prevention Program
http://www.rvi.net/~fluoride/riseinta.htm

THYROID HORMONE DISORDER/Hypothyrodism Symptom Sources:

50)The Thyroid Society
http://www.the-thyroid-society.org/

51)Thyroid Federation International
http://www.thyroid-fed.org/

52)American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Merck Manual,
Thyroid Foundation of America
http://thyroid.miningco.com/blchklst.htm?pid=2750&cob=home

53)Thomas P. Foley, Jr; M.D.; Professor of Pediatrics University of
Pittsburgh and Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, The MAGIC Foundation Clinical Hypothyroid Divison
http://www.magicfoundation.org/clinhypop.html

54)Werner and Ingbar's "The thyroid: a fundamental and clinical text" (7th edition) Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven (1996)

55) Pennec Y, Youinou P, Le Menn G - "Hypothryoidism and eosinophilic fasciitis" J Rheumatol 11(1):110-1 (1984)

56)Iurkevich NP, Savchenko TV -"Lymphedema and hypothyroidism" Klin Med (Mosk) 72(2):33-6(1994)

"The examination covered 1191 lymphedema patients (635 primary and 536 secondary disease cases). Hypothyroidism-like thyroid dysfunction was found in 80% of patients with primary lymphedema."

57)Dick DJ, Lane RJ, Nogues MA, Fawcett PR-"Polyneuropathy in hypothyroidism" Postgrad Med J 59(694):518-9 (1983)

58)McLean RM, Podell DN -"Bone and joint manifestations of hypothyroidism" Semin Arthritis Rheum 24(4):282-90 (1995)

59)Neeck G, Riedel W, Schmidt KL- "Neuropathy, myopathy and destructive arthropathy in primary hypothyroidism"J Rheumatol 17(12):1697-700 (1990)

60)Pauszek ME.-"Hypertension as the presenting problem in primary hypothyroidism" Indiana Med. 82(1):28-9 (1989)

61) Proto G, et al. -"Thyroid disease and retinitis pigmentosa"
J Endocrinol Invest. 19 (9):647-8  (1996)

62)Laoussadi S, Menkes CJ-"Osteoarthritis of rare etiology" Service de Rhumatologie A, Hopital Cochin, Paris. Rev Rhum Ed Fr 61(9 Pt 2):116S-123S (1994)

63)Gries G, et al.-"Studies on the origin of chronic pyelonephritis in
hypothyroidism" Med Welt.17:936-9. (1996)

64)Hess RS, Ward CR-"Diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism, and hypothyroidism in a dog." J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ;34(3):204-7 (1998)

65)Soares A de D, Falcao LM, De Barros E -"Hypothyroid coma and thyrotoxic crisis" Acta Med Port 1997 Nov;10(11):837-43

66)Caffarra P, et al.-" Ataxia and hypothyroidism"
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67)Green ST, Ng JP-"Hypothyroidism and anaemia" Biomed Pharmacother 40(9):326-31(1986)

68)Vernant JC, Cabre P, Smadja D, Merle H, Caubarrere I, Mikol J, Poser CM-"Recurrent optic neuromyelitis with endocrinopathies: a new syndrome." Neurology 48(1):58-64 (1997)

69) Matteini M, et al.- "On the significance of a syndrome consisting of primary hypothyroidism, testicular germinal dysgenesis, complex renal tubulopathy, mental deficiency, congenital cataract and osteoporosis" Rass Neurol Veg. 22(1):32-55 (1968)

70)Med. Education:Loyola University Medical Education Network
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70b)http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/medicine/endo/hypothy/hypothy2.htm

71)"Thyroid Dysfunction as a Cause of Aggression in Dogs and Cats" L.P. Aronson DVM & N.H. Dodman RVMS - Presented at the 43. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Veterinarmedizinischen Gesellschaft Fachgruppe Kleintierkrankheiten 29-31 August 1997 in HCC Hannover, Germany

72)Silverman S Jr. " Oral changes in metabolic diseases." Postgrad Med. 49(1):106-10.  (1971)

73)Hegedus L, Heidenheim M, Gervil M, Hjalgrim H, Hoier-Madsen M -"High frequency of thyroid dysfunction in patients with vitiligo" Acta Derm Venereol 74(2):120-3 (1994)

74)Ghayad E, Tohme A, Haddad F, Haddad C, Choueiry R -"Scleroderma with anomalies of the thyroid function. 7 cases" Ann Med Interne (Paris) 148(4):307-10 (1997)

75)Keenan GF, Ostrov BE, Goldsmith DP, Athreya BH -"Rheumatic symptoms associated with hypothyroidism in children" J Pediatr 123(4):586-8 (1993)

76a)Borges MF, Abelin NM, Menezes FO, Dahia PL, Toledo SP-"Calcitonin deficiency in early stages of chronic autoimmunethyroiditis" Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 49(1):69-75 (1998)

76b) Baloch ZW, Saberi M, Livolsi VA - "Simultaneous involvement of thyroid by Riedel's [correction of Reidel's] disease and fibrosing Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report." Thyroid 8(4):337-41(1998)

77)Sridhar GR, Nagamani G-""Hypothyroidism presenting with polycystic ovary syndrome"J Assoc Physicians India 41(2):88-90 (1993)

78) Reuland-Bosma W. -"Down syndrome--2. Orofacial aspects" Rev Belge Med Dent. 50(3):53-62 (1995)

79)McIntosh LM, et al. - "The effects of altered metabolism (hypothyroidism) on muscle repair in the mdx dystrophic mouse"  Muscle Nerve 17(4):444-53 (1994)

80)Krupsky M, Flatau E, Yarom R, Resnitzky P -"Musculoskeletal symptoms as a presenting sign of long-standing hypothyroidism" Isr J Med Sci 23(11):1110-3 (1987)

81) Asami T, et al. -"Incidence of febrile convulsions in children with congenital hypothyroidism" Acta Paediatr.87(6):623-6 (1998)

82)Paloyan Walker R, Kazuko E, Gopalsami C, Bassali J, Lawrence AM, Paloyan E -"Hyperparathyroidism associated with a chronic hypothyroid state" Laryngoscope 107(7):903-9 (1997)

83)Huda SN, Grantham-McGregor SM, Rahman KM, Tomkins A - "Biochemical hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency is associated with poor school achievement and cognition in Bangladeshi children." J Nutr 129(5):980-7 (1999)

85)Stauffer JT, Weinman MD, Bynum TE -"Hemobilia in a patient with multiple hepatic artery aneurysms: a case report and review of the literature." Am J Gastroenterol 84(1):59-62 (1989)

86)Mg'ang'a PM, Chindia ML-""Dental and skeletal changes in juvenile hypothyroidism following treatment: case report" Odontostomatol Trop 13(1):25-7 (1990)

87)Rosenthal, SM -"The Thyroid Sourcebook", Lowell House, Los Angeles (1995)

88) Higashiyama A, et al. -"NMDA receptors in the inferior colliculus are critically involved in audiogenic seizures in the adult rats with neonatal hypothyroidism"  Exp Neurol.153(1):94-101(1998)

89)Sumida Y, et al.-"A case of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism associated with primary hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus"  Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi. 20;70(6):609-14(1994)

90)Gordon CM, et al-"Primary hypothyroidism presenting as severe vaginal bleeding in a prepubertal girl" J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 10(1):35-8 (1997)

91)Brenner PF-"Differential diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding" Am J Obstet Gynecol.175(3 Pt 2):766-9 (1996)

92) Hernandez DE, et al -"Influence of thyroid states on stress gastric ulcer formation" Life Sci.42(18):1757-64(1988)

93) Loevy HT, et al "Tooth eruption and craniofacial development in congenital hypothyroidism: report of case" JADA 115(3):429-31(1987)

94)Simsek G, Andican G, Karakoc Y, Yigit G, Hatemi H, Candan G -"Calcium, magnesium, and zinc status in experimental hypothyroidism" Biol Trace Elem Res 60(3):205-13 (1997)

95)Dorsch C-"Orthodontic studies in children with stunted growth" Stomatol DDR 28(4):232-7 (1978)

96)Noren JG, Alm J-"Congenital hypothyroidism and changes in the enamel of deciduous teeth." Acta Paediatr Scand 72(4):485-9 (1983)

97)Surks, MI - "The Thyroid Book" Consumer Reports Books (1993)

98)APA/The Monitor("Down's Syndrome shares symptoms with Alzheimer's)
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99)Lee HW, Klein LE, Raser J, Eghbali-Webb M -"An activator protein-1 (AP-1) response element on pro alpha1(l) collagen gene is necessary for thyroid hormone-induced inhibition of promoter activity in cardiac fibroblasts." J Mol Cell Cardiol 30(11):2495-506 (1998)

100) Shikata A, et al-"Thoracic aortic calcification in 3 children with candidiasis-endocrinopathy syndrome" Pediatr Radiol. 23(2):100-3(1993)

101)Tsai RT, Chang TC, Wang CR, Chuang CY, Chen CY- "Thyroid disorders in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus" Rheumatol Int 13(1):9-13 (1993)

102)Panno ML, Sisci D, Salerno M, Lanzino M, Pezzi V, Morrone EG, Mauro L, Palmero S, Fugassa E, Ando S- "Thyroid hormone modulates androgen and oestrogen receptor content in the Sertoli cells of peripubertal rats" J Endocrinol 148(1):43-50 (1996)

103)Autelitano F, Santeusanio G, Mauriello A, Autelitano M, Palmieri G, Orlandi A, Spagnoli LG - "Latent pathology of the thyroid: an epidemiological and statistical study of thyroids sampled during 507 consecutive autopsies" Ann Ital Chir 63(6):761-81(1992)

104)Langenbach A, et al. "Extraskeletal osteosarcomas in dogs: a retrospective study of 169 cases (1986-1996)" J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 34(2):113-20 (1998)

105)Anton E, et al."Primary acquired cold-induced urticaria associated to hypothyroidism" Ann Med Interna 13(9):459 (1996)

106)Rumbyrt JS, et al-"Resolution of chronic urticaria in patients with thyroid autoimmunity" J Allergy Clin Immunol 96(6 Pt 1):901-5.(1995)

107) Lanigan SW, et al- "Association between urticaria and hypothyroidism” Lancet 1(8392):1476 (1994)

108)Whitaker G, et al -"Fibrillary glomerulonephritis occurring in association with hereditary angioneurotic oedema, pernicious anaemia and hypothyroidism." Nephrol Dial Transplant 13(7):1822-4 (1998)

109)Mann N, et al-" A 50-year-old male with diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, hypothyroidism, obesity, sleep disorder, pickwickian syndrome, and heart failure." Mt Sinai J Med 65(5-6):414-21(1998)

110)Isobe M, et al-"Massive pericardial effusion in an adult case of
congenital hypothyroidism due to a sublingual thyroid" Acta Cardiol
53(2):101-3.(1998)

111)Guerin V, et al - "Dysthyroidism and Parkinson's disease" Ann Endocrinol 51(1):43-5 (1990)

112)Johannessen AC, et al-"Thyroid function in patients with Parkinson's disease" Acta Neurol Scand 75(5):364-5 (1987)

113)Faver IR, Daoud MS, Su WP-"Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis. Report of six cases and review of the literature."J Am Acad Dermatol 30(4):575-80 (1994)

114) Lopez A, et al. "Sleep apnea, hypothyroidism and pulmonary edema" Chest.97(3):763-4 (1990)

115)Mullin GE, Eastern JS -"Cutaneous signs of thyroid disease" Am Fam Physician 34(4):93-8 (1986)

116)Hornstein OP-"The thyroid gland, the parathyroid gland and the skin" Z Hautkr 59(17):1125-6, 1129-32, 1137-43 (1984)

117)Pandolfi C, Filippi C -"Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with hypothyroidism. Report of a case" Minerva Med 80(10):1129-31 (1989)

118)Wiesli P, et al - "Headache and bilateral visual loss in a young hypothyroid Indian man" J Endocrinol Invest 22(2):141-3 (1999)

119)Mayer D, et al- "Fulminant meningococcal meningitis and sepsis associated with severe hypothyroidism caused by autoimmune (Hashimoto) thyroiditis" Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes105 Suppl 4:80 (1997)

120)Paja M, Estrada J, Ojeda A, Ramon y Cajal S, Garcia-Uria J, Lucas T - "Lymphocytic hypophysitis causing hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus, and associated with autoimmune thyroiditis, in a non-pregnant woman" Postgrad Med J 70(821):220-4 (1994)

121)Lindbom U, Hulting AL, Tomson T - "Paradoxical GH response to TRH during status epilepticus in man" Eur J Endocrinol 140(4):307-14 (1999)

122)Chadarevian R, Bruckert E, Ankri A, Beucler I, Giral P, Turpin G - "Relationship between thyroid hormones and plasma D-dimer levels" Thromb Haemost 79(1):99-103 (1998)

123)Bailes BK - "Hypothyroidism in elderly patients" AORN J 69(5):1026-30 (1999)

124)Herren T - "Hypotensive crisis" Schweiz Med Wochenschr 123(17):853-67 (1993)

125)Mooraki A, et al - "Reversible renal insufficiency, hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis in a case of hypothyroidism" Clin Nephrol 49(1):59-61 (1998)

126) Klapps P, et al -"Endocrine function in multiple sclerosis" Acta
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127)Henrot B, Ninane J, Mercenier C, Vermylen C, Verellen C, Cornu G, Malvaux P "Deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18, primary hypothyroidism, Biermer's anemia and IgM hypogammaglobulinemia" Arch Fr Pediatr 46(10):729-32 (1989)

128)Dykewicz MS, Fineman S, Skoner DP, Nicklas R, Lee R, Blessing-Moore J, Li JT, Bernstein IL, Berger W, Spector S, Schuller D - "Diagnosis and management of rhinitis: complete guidelines of the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters in Allergy, Asthma and Immunology" American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 81(5 Pt 2):478-518 (1998)

129)Sugai K, Sugai Y - "Epidural anesthesia for a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, bronchial asthma and hypothyroidism" Masui 38(5):688-91 (1989)

130) Villa MP, et al - "Modification of nonspecific bronchial reactivity in hypothyroid children under different regimens of substitutive opotherapy" Pediatr Pulmonol 2(6):353-7 (1986)

131)Rowe MS, et al - "Hypothyroidism with coexistent asthma: problems in management" South Med J77(3):401-2 (1984)

  • "This case study illustrates the relationship between hypothyroidism and bronchial asthma. As seen here, even slow and cautious restoration of the euthyroid state may lead to problems in the management of asthma. Thus routine or aggressive replacement therapy for thyroid hypofunction in the asthmatic population is not recommended."

132)Shapiro M, et al "Asthma as the primary manifestation of selective ACTH deficiency associated with latent primary hypothyroidism" Harefuah 103(5-6):104-5 (1982)

133)Brauman H, Gregoire F - "The growth hormone response to insulin induced hypoglycaemia in anorexia nervosa and control underweight or normal subjects" Eur J Clin Invest 5(3):289-95 (1975)

134)Aynaci FM, Orhan F, Celep F, Karaguzel A - "Frequency of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal malformations, leukemia and hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome in Trabzon, Turkey" Turk J Pediatr 40(1):103-9 (1998)

135)Marwaha RK, Sankar R, Magdum M, Nijahvan VS, Khanna CM, Jaggi CB, Ambardar V, Maharda NS, Walia RP, Jain SK - "Clinical, biochemical and cytomorphological observations in juvenile chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis" Indian Pediatr 35(10):967-73 (1998)

136)Catapani WR, Valente O, Aguiar C -"A patient with hepatitis B,
antimicrosomal antibodies, and autoimmune hypothyroidism" Postgrad Med J 72(854):752-3 (1996)

137)Zampollo A, Cristofori E, Zacchetti O, Spreafico A - "Hypothyroid neuropathy. Description 2 cases" Minerva Med 74(5):165-72 (1983)

138)Kunisada K, et al -"Case of hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism discovered by fainting spells" Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi 87(11):2314-5 (1998)

139)Forrest D, Erway LC, Ng L, Altschuler R, Curran T - "Thyroid hormone receptor beta is essential for development of auditory function" Nat Genet 13(3):354-7 (1996)

140) Kalinin AP, Rafibekov DS, Potemkina EE, Shabadin VN - "Effect of plasmapheresis and immunocorrective therapy on the status of the T-cell component of immunity in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis"  Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 40(4):21-3 (1994)

141)Durand JM, et al - "Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hypothyroidism" Am J Hematol 61(1):83-4 (1999)

141b)Coser P, et al -"Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in hypothyroidism: an accidental association?" Haematologica 67(4):625-9 (1982)

142)Messina G, Viceconti N, Trinti B -"The clinical and echographic assessment of thyroid function and structure in patients with a chronic inflammatory intestinal disease" Recenti Prog Med 90(1):13-6 (1999)

143)Keenan GF, Ostrov BE, Goldsmith DP, Athreya BH -"Rheumatic symptoms associated with hypothyroidism in children" J Pediatr 123(4):586-8 (1993)

144) Kumar MS, Chiang T, Deodhar SD - "Enhancing effect of thyroxine on tumor growth and metastases in syngeneic mouse tumor systems" Cancer Res 39(9):3515-8 (1979)

145)Kinoshita S, Sone S, Yamashita T, Tsubura E, Ogura T -"Effects of experimental hyper- and hypothyroidism on natural defense activities against Lewis lung carcinoma and its spontaneous pulmonary metastases in C57BL/6 mice" Tokushima J Exp Med 38(1-2):25-35 (1989)

146)Michel-Reher MB, Gross G, Jasper JR, Bernstein D, Olbricht T, Brodde OE, Michel MC - "Tissue- and subunit-specific regulation of G-protein expression by hypo- and hyperthyroidism" Biochem Pharmacol 45(7):1417-23 (1993)

147)Yokoe T, Iino Y, Takei H, Horiguchi J, Koibuchi Y, Maemura M, Ohwada S, Morishita Y -"Relationship between thyroid-pituitary function and response to therapy in patients with recurrent breast cancer" Anticancer Res 16(4A):2069-72 (1996)

148) Ott VR, et al- "Spondylitis ankylopoietica in postoperative hypoparathyreosis and hypothyreosis" Z Rheumaforsch. 26(1):20-6 (1967)

149) Teerds KJ, de Rooij DG, de Jong FH, van Haaster LH - "Development of the adult-type Leydig cell population in the rat is affected by neonatal thyroid hormone levels." Biol Reprod 59(2):344-50 (1998)

150)Sfakianakis GN, Ezuddin SH, Sanchez JE, Eidson M, Cleveland W - "Pertechnetate scintigraphy in primary congenital hypothyroidism." J Nucl Med 40(5):799-804 (1999)

151) Schmidt JB - "Hormonal basis of male and female androgenic alopecia: clinical relevance." Skin Pharmacol 7(1-2):61-6  (1994)

152)Gold MS, Pottash AL, Extein I - "Hypothyroidism and depression. Evidence from complete thyroid function evaluation". JAMA 245(19):1919-22 (1981)
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153) Kreft B, Greiwe M, Schreiber M, Wiedemann G, Fehm HL - "Diagnosis of an Ullrich-Turner syndrome in pension evaluation". Dtsch Med Wochenschr 119(33):1115-8 (1994)

154) Hirbli K, Altman JJ, Slama G, Tchobroutsky G - "Effect of clinical hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on patent diabetes. 59 cases". Presse Med 14(1):17-21 (1985)

155) Squires L, Dolan TF - "Abnormal sweat chloride in auto-immune hypothyroidism" Clin Pediatr (Phila) 28(11):535-6 (1989)

156) Strickland AL - "Sweat electrolytes in thyroid disorders" J Pediatr 82(2):284-6 (1973)

157) De Nardo D, Franconi G, Sabino D - "Hyperammonemia during hypothyroidism: an unusual biohumoral finding normalized by hormonal replacement treatment" Ann Ital Med Int  14(3):196-201 (1999)

158) Leung AS, Millar LK, Koonings PP, Montoro M, Mestman JH - "Perinatal outcome in hypothyroid pregnancies" Obstet Gynecol 81(3):349-53 (1993)
"Low birth weight in both overt and subclinical hypothyroid patients was secondary to premature delivery for gestational hypertension."

159) Yamada T - "Manic-depressive symptom associated with endocrine and metabolic disorders" Nippon Rinsho 1994 May;52(5):1311-7

160) Nowotny B, Teuber J, an der Heiden W, Schlote B, Kleinbohl D, Schmidt R, Kaumeier S, Usadel KH - "The role of TSH psychological and somatic changes in thyroid dysfunctions" Klin Wochenschr 68(19):964-70 (1990)

161) Coleman R, Hay RJ - "Chronic mucocutaneous candidosis associated with hypothyroidism: a distinct syndrome?" Br J Dermatol 136(1):24-9 (1997)

162) Ilewicz L, Chrusciel H, Korycinska-Wronska W, Maniak B, Szlachta R, Mniszkowa M, Waszkiewicz-Golos H, Wrobel J - "Condition of the periodontium and mouth mucosa in workers exposed to fluorides" Med Pr 1982;33(1-3):153-6

"Stomatological and mycological examinations of the workers at the fusion department of the RZWM "Silesia" showed a considerable intensification of paradontium diseases (about 80% of cases). Leukoplakia and candidiasis were the most common changes found on the mucous membrane in the oral cavity. Mycological investigations carried out on the Sabourand culture showed Candida albicans in 73,7% of cases."

163) Haberfellner EM, Rittmannsberger H, Windhager E-"Psychotic manifestation of hypothyroidism. A case report" Nervenarzt 64(5):336-9 (1993)

164) Smirnova LK, Zorenko TI - "Thyroid functional activity in schizophrenic patients with aggressive sexual behavior" Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 93(4):68-70 (1993)
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165) Lautermann J, ten Cate WJ - "Postnatal expression of the alpha-thyroid hormone receptor in the rat cochlea." Hear Res 107(1-2):23-8 (1997)

166) Balic J, Kansky A, Wolf A - "Telangiectasias, heavy sweating and diffuse itching of the skin in potroom workers working with the eletrolytic extraction of aluminum" Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 37(3):337-45 (1986)

167) Pehr K, Moroz B - "Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita: long-term follow-up, review of the literature, and report of a case in conjunction with congenital hypothyroidism" Pediatr Dermatol 10(1):6-11 (1993)

168) Ersoy F, Berkel AI, Sanal O, Oktay H - "Twenty-year follow-up of 160 patients with ataxia-telangiectasia" Turk J Pediatr 33(4):205-15 (1991)

169) Cathy Rookard, Director, ACIDD Association for Children and Infants with Digestive Disorders

170) Gillberg IC, Gillberg C, Kopp S - "Hypothyroidism and autism spectrum disorders." J Child Psychol Psychiatry 33(3):531-42 (1992)

171) Comi AM, Zimmerman AW, Frye VH, Law PA, Peeden JN - "Familial clustering of autoimmune disorders and evaluation of medical risk factors in autism." J Child Neurol 14
(6):388-94 (1999)

172) McKay, FS - "Progress of the year in the investigation of mottled enamel with special reference to its association with artesian water" J Natl Dental Assn 5:721 (1918)

173) PFPC NEWSLETTER # 9

174) Aytuluner E, Mensiz E - "Heavy iridocorneal angle hyperpigmentation and glaucoma associated with fluorosis" Journal of Toxicology. Cutaneous and ocular toxicology 21(3):203-212 (2002)

175) Cross JM, Girkin CA, Owsley C, McGwin G Jr. - "The Association between Thyroid Problems and Glaucoma" Br J Ophthalmol. 2008 Oct 16. [Epub ahead of print]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18927223?dopt=Abstract

 

 

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